As we have discovered in previous articles in our series, the notion that customers are prepared to ditch human interaction for a purely digital self-service model is wrong-headed.
While the likes of Gartner and Forrester are forecasting that by the end of the decade up to 80% of the buying process will occur without any direct human-to-human interaction, that still leaves an important proportion of the customer journey requiring human involvement.
In the customer journeys of most organisations there are interactions that continue to be best handled by human agents, either because of the complexity of an enquiry or the emotional nature of the enquiry. At the same time, there also remains a large demographic of today’s customer population that simply have a preference for human rather than digital interactions.
At the same time, the appetite for digital self-service is on the rise, and it is likely that this will continue to increase over time. This leaves organisations with the complex task of balancing both human and digital service options; attempting to find an optimal mix for their particular customer base so that their needs are addressed but there is no wastage in terms of surplus digital investment or human resource.
So that leaves the question of how to identify the right balance.
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- The degree of digital behaviour a customer is likely to adopt in how they want to engage.
- The type of customer journey and the challenges this throws up for the customer.
- The relative strengths and weaknesses of the voice, text and video channels at your disposal that match the type of digital profile and journey.
Let’s tackle each of these in turn.
The key question you need to answer here is how fast your customers are adopting digital behaviours. And once you know the answer, you need to check that your organisation’s services are calibrated appropriately for your audience’s digital maturity.
This shouldn’t be a one-off exercise, but an ongoing commitment to tracking the digital profile of your customer base, through both existing research and primary research.
There is certainly no shortage of existing research you can pull from, Hill-Wilson emphasises.
“There is a ton of it - from government level, to research firms and individual brands using research to prove a market demand,” he says. “It’s all useful if you remember the golden rule of customer insight - use at least three sources before settling on any interpretation of what’s going on. It’s the same process your smart phone’s GPS uses as it locks onto more than one satellite so it can triangulate and figure out where you are.”
This existing research should provide you with foundation insights about your customer based. An example of this would be UK regulator OFCOM’s annual review of the public’s communication habits, and how digital they are becoming. So this is general data, but still useful to factor into consideration.
The other type of research to learn from is your own customers themselves. Using the findings from existing research, build a questionnaire that enables you to probe your customers and better understand their digital behaviour.
Hill-Wilson recommends that you consider the following:
- Preferences in their multi-device use.
- Online shopping via laptop/tablet/smartphone.
- The scope of their ‘on the move’ mobile behaviour.
- Information-based, e.g. maps.
- Transaction-based, e.g. ecommerce.
- Interaction-based, e.g. social network updates.
- Channel preferences for key communication tasks, e.g.
- Buying from us.
- Getting an update.
- Getting advice from us.
- Making a complaint.
- Expectations around autonomy and self-management.
- Attitudes towards the harvesting and use of their own data.
“All this then helps build a picture of how they would adopt various service strategies you might offer. Would they use an app, complain on social, watch a ‘how to’ video?” says Hill-Wilson.
Understanding customer journeys
Customer journey mapping is a valuable discipline as it forces organisations to look at interactions from the customer’s perspective. This means considering not only which channels and devices are being used by customers at various points in the journey, but also WHY they are being used by customers.
So what influences a customer’s choice of channel? Hill-Wilson proposed that the most influential is the type of task. Therefore, you must consider:
- What is the context of their current situation?
- Is what they are trying to easy or complex to complete?
- Do they feel expert or novice trying to deal with it?
- What emotions are associated with the task?
- How important is the task in terms of getting it done fast, accurately, effortlessly, privately?
It is critical that you have an up to date, granular view of what matters to your customers in all of the major journeys you provide customer service for. But during the process of understanding your customer journeys, do ensure you dig deep into the mitigating factors behind the use of various channels and devices to ensure you understand the motivations of each.
Hill-Wilson points to SITA research shared during the 2016 Air Transport IT Summit in Barcelona, to demonstrate this point.
- According to the findings, almost every flight is now booked using self-service technology.
- Only 8% had contact with a human.
- 75% used a website. While 18% of these say they now intend to move to a mobile app, only 4% say they will seek out a human.
- Similar figures for mobile apps.
- 91% of those who used self-service technology to check-in saying they will do so again.
- If a passenger is dissatisfied with the technology, they will seek an alternative technology rather than reverting to a human being.
Taken on face value, this would suggest that customers are all app mad and do not require human interaction. However, there are wider situational factors to consider.
Hill-Wilson notes: “Getting onto a flight at a busy airport is a logistically complex task these days. You are probably carrying stuff as well. Maybe you are with others as well. It is these conditions that drive users to the channel mix just described.”
Understanding channel characteristics
So, as we have discovered, much of identifying the right channel mix involves understanding the tasks that customers want to fulfill. So after first researching your customers’ digital behaviour, and then understanding the characteristics of their journeys, the final step in the process is to identify the most appropriate channels for each task in the journey.
At its most simple level, there are only three types of communication channel – video, voice and text. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. So how do you choose the most appropriate channel for each task? Hill-Wilson provides the following guidance:
- Video: The key scenario is when trust matters to the customer outcome. Key examples include high value sales, VIP service, escalations and counselling.
- Voice: The key scenarios are when the situation is either complex or emotional or when the quality of relationship matters. Examples being problems, complaints and customer retention outreach.
- Text: The key scenarios are explanations, simple advice and escalations, Examples being how to do something, where to find something, moving from self-service to live assistance.
Self-service also needs to be considered where there are customer expectations for instant, always-on service.
As we discussed in the previous article in this series, self-service (such as chatbots) is best applied to narrow specific tasks, such as improving the use of existing FAQs and collecting information in the initial part of the conversation. Organisations should examine if there are tasks where self-service can be a quicker, simpler option than a call centre, or where enquiries may be of a sensitive nature so the sense of anonymity provided by a chatbot may be valuable.
Even then, organisations should ensure that the ability exists to connect the customer to a human agent in the event that the self-service system doesn’t understand a request.