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How do you create customer loyalty programmes that stick?

12th May 2014
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Customer loyalty programmes can be a gift and a curse.

When done well, they can keep customers coming back for repeat purchases, potentially turning a passerby customer into a loyal brand advocate.
 When done wrong, however, they can be a huge waste of time and resources, becoming a tiresome burden for customers who have no interest in getting involved with the program.

But we know that everybody loves free stuff, so how can we get these loyalty programs to be perceived as valuable to customers?

It’s simple: In the race to win the loyal customer, you should give them a head start.

Creating customer loyalty programmes that stick

What if I told you that an academic study has broken the secrets to successful customer loyalty programs WIDE open, revealing a stupidly simple technique for improving customer retention, loyalty and churn rates over the long haul?

You’d be interested in hearing about it, right?

Well, keep reading...

A breakthrough piece of consumer research by professors Joseph Nunes and Xavier Dreze entitled “The Endowed Progress Effect” analyses how artificial advancement affects customer effort when it comes to loyalty programmes.

Nunes and Dreze began their study with the assumption that customer loyalty programmes could persuade customers to stick around - if customers were given a comparative head start in reaching their “payoff milestones.”

In their first study, the researchers gave 300 loyalty cards to customers at a local car wash. All of the customers were told that each time they returned to have their car washed they would be given a stamp on their card.

A clear incentive was laid out for those that got their car washed regularly; upon the completion of their card, they would receive a free car wash.

In truth, two different types of cards were handed out to customers.

The first group received a loyalty card that had eight slots to be stamped before a free car wash was awarded.

The second group received a loyalty card that had 10 slots to be stamped, but this time two of the stamps were already filled out, meaning customers only needed eight more purchases to get their free car wash.

With such a similar setup, one might expect very similar results. However, that definitely wasn't the case: The second group had a nearly double rate of loyalty card completion!

Only 19% of customers in the eight-stamp group (the first group) made enough visits to complete their card. However, 34% of the 10-stamp group (the ones given a head start) came back enough times to finish their loyalty cards.

Why did this happen?

At first glance, the results don’t seem very logical. Since the first group had eight slots to complete and the second group had 10 slots to complete (but with a two-slot head start), both groups needed eight purchases before they could get a free car wash.

So why weren’t the results the same?

According to Nunes and Dreze, the head start loyalty card helped customers mentally reframe the completion process; the fact that they didn't have to start something from scratch played a huge role in their motivation to complete the card.

The researchers also highlighted other studies in their paper that emphasise the finding that the closer people get to completing a goal, the more effort they exert toward achieving that goal. So even artificial progress has an impact on consumer motivation because it gives customers the feeling that they have already surpassed the most challenging aspect - getting started.

Both cards in this car wash programme required the same amount of effort by customers. But the mental block of getting started was eliminated in the second card, leaving more customers able to complete it.

How to improve loyalty to your business

This research is useful information to know, but how can we go about putting it into practice?

Largely, the creation of a successful loyalty programme boils down to three important steps:

  1. Setting a goal for customers to achieve
  2. Deciding what the action will be to progress
  3. Pitching the artificial advancement as a bonus

Let’s take a closer look at how to complete these steps.

Step #1 - Set a clear goal

To take advantage of “artificial advancement,” there must be a clear-cut goal that customers can look forward to and it has to align with a desire of theirs.

Without a finish line (or multiple finish lines) for customers to cross, they will lose interest. For instance, the car wash study had “a free car wash” as the end-goal for those involved; that was the reward they would be receiving. I’ve seen many subscription services instead offer price discounts or an upgraded account (such as additional storage or more features) to serve as a desirable goal.

Utilising your own product as a reward for achieving the stated goal is almost always the right path here. It allows you to avoid losing your shirt from too many expenses. Also, presenting your product as a reward is the perfect way to create enticement, the same way a free car wash (in that example, the product) serves as the reward above.

Step #2 - Decide what customers should do to progress

This is the step many companies have the potential to get very wrong. You have to be careful about choosing which behaviour you want to reward.

Purchasing more items makes perfect sense for progression and applies widely to many industries, but when some online companies try to force product use as the action they end up creating misaligned motivations with their customers.

To continue with our carwash example, the ‘action’ customers are taking is simply the purchase of an individual car wash. If your product is subscription based, you can get more creative and have a new customer referral be the end-goal, such as how Dropbox rewards their users via their refer a friend program.

This doesn’t hinder their usage of the product and encourages them to promote it to be rewarded, a win-win for both the customer and the business.

Step #3 - Pitch the advancement as a bonus

Don’t skip this step!

Dreze and Nunes found that artificial advancement only had a noticeable effect when there was a clear reason why people were receiving advancement at all.
 In other words, artificial advancement won’t work as a tactic if you just hand out points for no reason.

But the reason can be quite simple. For example, you could position advancement as a reward for new signups. This works for every customer loyalty programme, regardless of the industry. So when new users sign up, a simple message explaining that you’re giving them some bonus points to help get them started is all you need to justify the process.

No matter what you choose to do for advancement, make sure the reason for the bonus is clear. People won’t be swayed by artificial advancement if they don’t know why they’ve received the extra boost forward.

The role of “ego” in loyalty programmes

Nunes has done some other interesting studies on customer loyalty. In fact, he discovered that in many instances the reward could be worth nothing and still create the same effect!

According to Nunes, consumers get excited about amassing points - even if the points have no currency value. To reinforce his findings, Nunes looks to points systems on sites like Yahoo Answers and Reddit: You can't exchange these points for real-world goods and services, yet people still spend enormous amounts of time accumulating them just to beat others in a list of top point-getters, or simply to compete with themselves.”

In other words, it’s the competition and the feeling of superiority that is driving the success of many loyalty programs, especially when they aren’t offering a tangible reward.

While this method may work for a social site like Reddit (where the use of the site isthe reward, because it’s entertaining), how does this apply to small businesses?

Nunes says that loyalty programmes “need to be designed to offer differentiated products and services to customers based on their purchasing patterns and profitability.” That means most loyalty programmes benefit from having different classes.

You’ve likely seen these classes before: “Gold” members get better deals than the “Silver” class. We are wired to want to maintain our status when we know that we are beating other users. The data from Nunes’ study shows that these premium classes can and do encourage people to spend more.

So if you do decide to implement a long-standing customer loyalty programme, be sure to consider your “Platinum” users and how you might differentiate their program to reward their ideal spending on your business!

Gregory Ciotti is the author of Sparring Mind and the marketing strategist at Help Scout. This post originally appeared on the Help Scout blog


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